Community gardening comprises a wide variety of approaches to sharing land and gardens. People often surround their house and garden with a hedge. Common hedge plants are privet, hawthorn, beech, yew, leyland cypress, hemlock, arborvitae, barberry, box, holly, oleander, forsythia and lavender. The idea of open gardens without hedges may be distasteful to those who enjoy privacy.
Also gaining popularity is the concept of "Green Gardening" which involves growing plants using organic fertilizers and pesticides so that the gardening process – or the flowers and fruits produced thereby – doesn't adversely affect the environment or people's health in any manner. Berms of fava beans have been planted at Hayes Valley Farm, a community-built farm on the former Central freeway ramps of San Francisco Gardening for beauty is likely nearly as old as farming for food, however for most of history for the majority of people there was no real distinction since the need for food and other useful products trumped other concerns.
A patch of potatoes grown by a Peruvian peasant or an Irish smallholder for personal use could be described as either a garden or a farm. Gardening for average people evolved as a separate discipline, more concerned with aesthetics, recreation and leisure, under the influence of the pleasure gardens of the wealthy. Meanwhile, farming has evolved (in developed countries) in the direction of commercialization, economics of scale, and monocropping.
Farming occurs on a larger scale, and with the production of salable goods as a major motivation. Gardening happens on a smaller scale, primarily for pleasure and to produce goods for the gardener's own family or community. There is some overlap between the terms, particularly in that some moderate-sized vegetable growing concerns, often called market gardening, can fit in either category.
One distinction is that gardening is labor-intensive and employs very little infrastructural capital, sometimes no more than a few tools, e.g. a spade, hoe, basket and watering can. By contrast, larger-scale farming often involves irrigation systems, chemical fertilizers and harvesters or at least ladders, e.g. how many okra per plant. to reach up into fruit trees (square foot gardening tomatoes).
Monty Don has speculated on an atavistic connection between present-day gardeners and pre-modern peasantry. The term precision agriculture is sometimes used to describe gardening using intermediate technology (more than tools, less than harvesters), especially of organic varieties. Gardening is effectively scaled up to feed entire villages of over 100 people from specialized plots.
There is a wide range of garden ornaments and accessories available in the market for both the professional gardener and the amateur to exercise their creativity. These are used to add decoration or functionality, and may be made from a wide range of materials such as copper, stone, wood, bamboo, stainless steel, clay, stained glass, concrete, or iron.
The use of these items can be part of the expression of a gardener's gardening personality. Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which generally means garden maintenance. Garden design can include different themes such as perennial, butterfly, wildlife, Japanese, water, tropical, or shade gardens.
In 18th-century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped park lands, such as at Versailles, France, or Stowe, England. Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to produce artistically creative designs for private garden spaces (square foot garden planner). In the US, professional landscape designers are certified by the Association of Professional Landscape Designers.
A pest may crowd out desirable plants, disturb soil, stunt the growth of young seedlings, steal or damage fruit, or otherwise kill plants, hamper their growth, damage their appearance, or reduce the quality of the edible or ornamental portions of the plant. Aphids, spider mites, slugs, snails, ants, birds, and even cats are commonly considered to be garden pests (square foot gardening planting guide).
, for example, may be considered a desirable and ornamental garden plant, or it may be considered a pest if it seeds and starts to grow where it is not wanted. As another example, in lawns, moss can become dominant and be impossible to eradicate. In some lawns, lichens, especially very damp lawn lichens such as Peltigera lactucfolia and P.
There are many ways by which unwanted pests are removed from a garden. The techniques vary depending on the pest, the gardener's goals, and the gardener's philosophy. For example, snails may be dealt with through the use of a chemical pesticide, an organic pesticide, hand-picking, barriers, or simply growing snail-resistant plants.
Pesticides may affect the ecology of a garden due to their effects on the populations of both target and non-target species. For example, unintended exposure to some neonicotinoid pesticides has been proposed as a factor in the recent decline in honey bee populations. A mole vibrator can deter mole activity in a garden.
CCI (How to Plant a Victory Garden).22LR snake shot loaded with #12 shot Garden guns are smooth bore shotguns specifically made to fire .22 caliber snake shot, and are commonly used by gardeners and farmers for pest control. Garden guns are short range weapons that can do little harm past 15 yards (14 m) to 20 yards (18 m), and they're relatively quiet when fired with snake shot, compared to a standard ammunition.
They are also used for pest control at airports, warehouses, stockyards, etc. Douglas John McConnell (2003). p. 1. ISBN 9780754609582. Douglas John McConnell (1992). p. 1 (how many tomato plants in a 4x8 raised bed). ISBN 9789251028988. ^ "A Brief History of Gardening". Retrieved 4 June 2010. Ryrie, Charlie (2004). Collins & Brown. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84340-216-9. Scott-James, Anne; Osbert Lancaster (2004).
p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7112-2360-8. Anne Scott-James, The Cottage Garden (London: Lane) 1981, de-mythologised the origins of the English cottage garden, and its treasured topiary among the vegetables and flowers, popularly supposed to represent heirlooms from the seventeenth century. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840, Howard Colvin, Yale University Press, 2008 0-300-12508-9, p 659 Lloyd, Christopher; Richard Bird (1999).
Jacqui Hurst. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 6–9. ISBN 978-0-7513-0702-3. Yves-Marie Allain and Janine Christiany, L'Art des jardins en Europe, Citadelles and Mazenod, Paris, 2006. ^ Boults, Elizabeth and Chip Sullivan (2010). Illustrated History of Landscape Design. John Wiley and Sons. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-470-28933-4. ^ "hugelkultur: the ultimate raised garden beds".
Hemenway, Toby (2009). Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 84-85. 978-1-60358-029-8. "Greening the Desert II". 11 December 2009. "What is a community garden?". American Community Garden Association. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Hannah, A. K. & Oh, P. (2000) Rethinking Urban Poverty: A look at Community Gardens.
20(3). 207-216. Ferris, J., Norman, C. & Sempik, J. (2001) People, Land and Sustainability: Community Gardens and the Social Dimension of Sustainable Development. Social Policy and Administration. 35(5). 559-568. Greiner, Alyson L., 1966- (28 January 2014). Visualizing human geography (Second ed.). Hoboken. ISBN 978-1-118-52656-9. OCLC 862759747.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) The Guardian, 4 September 2008 Mickey, Thomas J.